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There have not been any substantive changes to CGSA Sec. 14-227a this past year.

However, there is proposed legislation. What I will do here is recite the DUI statute CGSA Sec. 14-227a followed by the proposed legislation.

Connecticut General Statute Sec. 14-227a

Effective: October 1, 2016

C.G.S.A. § 14-227a

  • 14-227a. Operation while under the influence of liquor or drug or while having an elevated blood alcohol content

Currentness

(a) Operation while under the influence or while having an elevated blood alcohol content. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both. A person commits the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both if such person operates a motor vehicle (1) while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both, or (2) while such person has an elevated blood alcohol content. For the purposes of this section, “elevated blood alcohol content” means a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is eight-hundredths of one percent or more of alcohol, by weight, except that if such person is operating a commercial motor vehicle, “elevated blood alcohol content” means a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is four-hundredths of one percent or more of alcohol, by weight, and “motor vehicle” includes a snowmobile and all-terrain vehicle, as those terms are defined in section 14-379.

(b) Admissibility of chemical analysis. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, in any criminal prosecution for violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the defendant’s blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant’s breath, blood or urine shall be admissible and competent provided: (1) The defendant was afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and consented to the taking of the test upon which such analysis is made; (2) a true copy of the report of the test result was mailed to or personally delivered to the defendant within twenty-four hours or by the end of the next regular business day, after such result was known, whichever is later; (3) the test was performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection and was performed in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (4) the device used for such test was checked for accuracy in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (5) an additional chemical test of the same type was performed at least ten minutes after the initial test was performed or, if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, an additional chemical test of a different type was performed to detect the presence of a drug or drugs other than or in addition to alcohol, provided the results of the initial test shall not be inadmissible under this subsection if reasonable efforts were made to have such additional test performed in accordance with the conditions set forth in this subsection and such additional test was not performed or was not performed within a reasonable time, or the results of such additional test are not admissible for failure to meet a condition set forth in this subsection; and (6) evidence is presented that the test was commenced within two hours of operation. In any prosecution under this section it shall be a rebuttable presumption that the results of such chemical analysis establish the ratio of alcohol in the blood of the defendant at the time of the alleged offense, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such defendant is ten-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and the analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense.

(c) Evidence of blood alcohol content. In any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, reliable evidence respecting the amount of alcohol in the defendant’s blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant’s blood, breath or urine, otherwise admissible under subsection (b) of this section, shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant.

(d) Testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine. The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall ascertain the reliability of each method and type of device offered for chemical testing and analysis purposes of blood, of breath and of urine and certify those methods and types which said commissioner finds suitable for use in testing and analysis of blood, breath and urine, respectively, in this state. The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54,1governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples as said commissioner finds necessary to protect the health and safety of persons who submit to chemical tests and to insure reasonable accuracy in testing results. Such regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because such officer terminates such officer’s employment with the law enforcement agency for which certification was originally issued and commences employment with another such agency.

(e) Evidence of refusal to submit to test. In any criminal prosecution for a violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence that the defendant refused to submit to a blood, breath or urine test requested in accordance with section 14-227b shall be admissible provided the requirements of subsection (b) of said section have been satisfied. If a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section is tried to a jury, the court shall instruct the jury as to any inference that may or may not be drawn from the defendant’s refusal to submit to a blood, breath or urine test.

(f) Reduction, nolle or dismissal prohibited. If a person is charged with a violation of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the charge may not be reduced, nolled or dismissed unless the prosecuting authority states in open court such prosecutor’s reasons for the reduction, nolle or dismissal.

(g) Penalties for operation while under the influence. Any person who violates any provision of subsection (a) of this section shall: (1) For conviction of a first violation, (A) be fined not less than five hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars, and (B) be (i) imprisoned not more than six months, forty-eight consecutive hours of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, or (ii) imprisoned not more than six months, with the execution of such sentence of imprisonment suspended entirely and a period of probation imposed requiring as a condition of such probation that such person perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, and (C) have such person’s motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for forty-five days and, as a condition for the restoration of such license, be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited for the one-year period following such restoration from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j; (2) for conviction of a second violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than one thousand dollars or more than four thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than two years, one hundred twenty consecutive days of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person: (i) Perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, (ii) submit to an assessment through the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch of the degree of such person’s alcohol or drug abuse, and (iii) undergo a treatment program if so ordered, and (C) have such person’s motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege suspended for forty-five days and, as a condition for the restoration of such license, be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited for the three-year period following such restoration from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, except that for the first year of such three-year period, such person’s operation of a motor vehicle shall be limited to such person’s transportation to or from work or school, an alcohol or drug abuse treatment program, an ignition interlock device service center or an appointment with a probation officer; and (3) for conviction of a third and subsequent violation within ten years after a prior conviction for the same offense, (A) be fined not less than two thousand dollars or more than eight thousand dollars, (B) be imprisoned not more than three years, one year of which may not be suspended or reduced in any manner, and sentenced to a period of probation requiring as a condition of such probation that such person: (i) Perform one hundred hours of community service, as defined in section 14-227e, (ii) submit to an assessment through the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch of the degree of such person’s alcohol or drug abuse, and (iii) undergo a treatment program if so ordered, and (C) have such person’s motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege permanently revoked upon such third offense, except that if such person’s revocation is reversed or reduced pursuant to subsection (i) of section 14-111, such person shall be prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, for the time period prescribed in subdivision (2) of subsection (i) of section 14-111. For purposes of the imposition of penalties for a second or third and subsequent offense pursuant to this subsection, a conviction under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section in effect on October 1, 1981, or as amended thereafter, a conviction under the provisions of either subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section, a conviction under the provisions of section 14-227m, a conviction under the provisions of subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n, a conviction under the provisions of section 53a-56b or 53a-60d or a conviction in any other state of any offense the essential elements of which are determined by the court to be substantially the same as subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of this section, section 14-227m, subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n or section 53a-56b or 53a-60d, shall constitute a prior conviction for the same offense.

(h) Suspension of operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege (1) Each court shall report each conviction under subsection (a) of this section to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, in accordance with the provisions of section 14-141. The commissioner shall suspend the motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege of the person reported as convicted for the period of time required by subsection (g) of this section. The commissioner shall determine the period of time required by subsection (g) of this section based on the number of convictions such person has had within the specified time period according to such person’s driving history record, notwithstanding the sentence imposed by the court for such conviction. (2) The motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege of a person found guilty under subsection (a) of this section who, at the time of the offense, was operating a motor vehicle in accordance with a special operator’s permit issued pursuant to section 14-37a shall be suspended by the commissioner for twice the period of time set forth in subsection (g) of this section. (3) If an appeal of any conviction under subsection (a) of this section is taken, the suspension of the motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege by the commissioner, in accordance with this subsection, shall be stayed during the pendency of such appeal.

(i) Ignition interlock device. (1) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall permit a person whose license has been suspended in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (C) of subdivision (1) or subparagraph (C) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section to operate a motor vehicle if (A) such person has served either the suspension required under said subparagraph (C) or the suspension required under subsection (i) of section 14-227b, and (B) such person has installed an approved ignition interlock device in each motor vehicle owned or to be operated by such person, and verifies to the commissioner, in such manner as the commissioner prescribes, that such device has been installed. For a period of one year after the installation of an ignition interlock device by a person who is subject to subparagraph (C) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section, such person’s operation of a motor vehicle shall be limited to such person’s transportation to or from work or school, an alcohol or drug abuse treatment program, an ignition interlock device service center or an appointment with a probation officer. Except as provided in sections 53a-56b and 53a-60d, no person whose license is suspended by the commissioner for any other reason shall be eligible to operate a motor vehicle equipped with an approved ignition interlock device.

(2) All costs of installing and maintaining an ignition interlock device shall be borne by the person required to install such device. No court sentencing a person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section may waive any fees or costs associated with the installation and maintenance of an ignition interlock device.

(3) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this subsection. The regulations shall establish procedures for the approval of ignition interlock devices, for the proper calibration and maintenance of such devices and for the installation of such devices by any firm approved and authorized by the commissioner and shall specify acts by persons required to install and use such devices that constitute a failure to comply with the requirements for the installation and use of such devices, the conditions under which such noncompliance will result in an extension of the period during which such persons are restricted to the operation of motor vehicles equipped with such devices and the duration of any such extension. The commissioner shall ensure that such firm provide notice to both the commissioner and the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch whenever a person required to install such device commits a violation with respect to the installation, maintenance or use of such device.

(4) The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to authorize the continued operation of a motor vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device by any person whose operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege is withdrawn, suspended or revoked for any other reason.

(5) The provisions of this subsection shall apply to any person whose license has been suspended in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (C) of subdivision (1) or subparagraph (C) of subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section on or after January 1, 2012.

(6) Whenever a person is permitted by the commissioner under this subsection to operate a motor vehicle if such person has installed an approved ignition interlock device in each motor vehicle owned or to be operated by such person, the commissioner shall indicate in the electronic record maintained by the commissioner pertaining to such person’s operator’s license or driving history that such person is restricted to operating a motor vehicle that is equipped with an ignition interlock device and, if applicable, that such person’s operation of a motor vehicle is limited to such person’s transportation to or from work or school, an alcohol or drug abuse treatment program, an ignition interlock device service center or an appointment with a probation officer, and the duration of such restriction or limitation, and shall ensure that such electronic record is accessible by law enforcement officers. Any such person shall pay the commissioner a fee of one hundred dollars prior to the installation of such device.

(7) There is established the ignition interlock administration account which shall be a separate, nonlapsing account in the General Fund. The commissioner shall deposit all fees paid pursuant to subdivision (6) of this subsection in the account. Funds in the account may be used by the commissioner for the administration of this subsection.

(8) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, upon request of any person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section whose operator’s license is under suspension on January 1, 2012, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may reduce the term of suspension prescribed in subsection (g) of this section and place a restriction on the operator’s license of such person that restricts the holder of such license to the operation of a motor vehicle that is equipped with an approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, for the remainder of such prescribed period of suspension.

(9) Any person required to install an ignition interlock device under this section shall be supervised by personnel of the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch while such person is subject to probation supervision, or by personnel of the Department of Motor Vehicles if such person is not subject to probation supervision, and such person shall be subject to any other terms and conditions as the commissioner may prescribe and any provision of the general statutes or the regulations adopted pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection not inconsistent herewith.

(10) Notwithstanding the periods prescribed in subsection (g) of this section and subdivision (2) of subsection (i) of section 14-111 during which a person is prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, such periods may be extended in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection.

(j) Participation in alcohol education and treatment program. In addition to any fine or sentence imposed pursuant to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section, the court may order such person to participate in an alcohol education and treatment program.

(k) Seizure and admissibility of medical records of injured operator. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the blood or urine of an operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident who has suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident, which evidence is derived from a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from or a urine sample provided by such person after such accident at the scene of the accident, while en route to a hospital or at a hospital, shall be competent evidence to establish probable cause for the arrest by warrant of such person for a violation of subsection (a) of this section and shall be admissible and competent in any subsequent prosecution thereof if: (1) The blood sample was taken or the urine sample was provided for the diagnosis and treatment of such injury; (2) if a blood sample was taken, the blood sample was taken in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (3) a police officer has demonstrated to the satisfaction of a judge of the Superior Court that such officer has reason to believe that such person was operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both and that the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample constitutes evidence of the commission of the offense of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both in violation of subsection (a) of this section; and (4) such judge has issued a search warrant in accordance with section 54-33a authorizing the seizure of the chemical analysis of such blood or urine sample. Such search warrant may also authorize the seizure of the medical records prepared by the hospital in connection with the diagnosis or treatment of such injury.

(l) Participation in victim impact panel program. If the court sentences a person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section to a period of probation, the court may require as a condition of such probation that such person participate in a victim impact panel program approved by the Court Support Services Division of the Judicial Branch. Such victim impact panel program shall provide a nonconfrontational forum for the victims of alcohol-related or drug-related offenses and offenders to share experiences on the impact of alcohol-related or drug-related incidents in their lives. Such victim impact panel program shall be conducted by a nonprofit organization that advocates on behalf of victims of accidents caused by persons who operated a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or both. Such organization may assess a participation fee of not more than seventy-five dollars on any person required by the court to participate in such program.

Credits

(1963, P.A. 616, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1964; 1965, Feb.Sp.Sess., P.A. 219; 1967, P.A. 612, § 1, eff. June 21, 1967; 1969, P.A. 450, § 4, eff. June 16, 1969; 1971, P.A. 318; 1971, P.A. 741; 1973, P.A. 73-253, § 4; 1975, P.A. 75-308, § 1; 1976, P.A. 76-6, § 1, eff. March 26, 1976; 1977, P.A. 77-340, § 8; 1977, P.A. 77-614, § 323, eff. Jan. 1, 1979; 1980, P.A. 80-438, §§ 2, 3; 1981, P.A. 81-144, § 1, eff. May 19, 1981; 1981, P.A. 81-446, § 2; 1982, P.A. 82-408, § 2; 1983, P.A. 83-63, §§ 1, 2, eff. May 9, 1983; 1983, P.A. 83-534, § 1; 1983, P.A. 83-571, § 4; 1984, P.A. 84-198, § 3, eff. May 23, 1984; 1984, P.A. 84-429, § 40; 1984, P.A. 84-546, § 43, eff. June 14, 1984; 1985, P.A. 85-387, § 1; 1985, P.A. 85-596, § 1; 1986, P.A. 86-345; 1988, P.A. 88-85; 1988, P.A. 88-302; 1989, P.A. 89-110, § 4; 1989, P.A. 89-314, § 2, eff. Jan. 1, 1990; 1990, P.A. 90-230, § 21, eff. June 8, 1990; 1991, P.A. 91-407, § 9, eff. July 2, 1991; 1993, P.A. 93-271, § 2, eff. June 29, 1993; 1993, P.A. 93-302, §§ 1 to 3; 1993, P.A. 93-371, §§ 2, 4, eff. July 1, 1993; 1993, P.A. 93-381, § 9, eff. July 1, 1993; 1994, P.A. 94-60; 1994, May 25 Sp.Sess., P.A. 94-1, § 18, eff. July 1, 1994; 1995, P.A. 95-257, §§ 12, 21, eff. July 1, 1995; 1995, P.A. 95-314, § 1; 1999, P.A. 99-218, §§ 3, 4, eff. July 1, 1999; 1999, P.A. 99-255, § 1; 2000, P.A. 00-196, §§ 49, 50; 2001, P.A. 01-201, § 1; 2002, P.A. 02-70, § 69, eff. July 1, 2002; 2002, May 9 Sp.Sess., P.A. 02-1, § 108, eff. July 1, 2002; 2003, P.A. 03-278, § 47, eff. July 9, 2003; 2003, P.A. 03-265, § 1; 2004, P.A. 04-257, § 101, eff. June 14, 2004; 2004, P.A. 04-199, § 31, eff. July 1, 2004; 2005, P.A. 05-218, § 28; 2005, June Sp.Sess., P.A. 05-3, § 111; 2006, P.A. 06-147, § 1; 2009, P.A. 09-187, §§ 42, 62, 66; 2010, P.A. 10-110, § 6, eff. July 1, 2010; 2010, P.A. 10-110, §§ 45, 46; 2011, P.A. 11-51, § 134(a), eff. July 1, 2011; 2011, P.A. 11-48, §§ 51, 52, eff. Jan. 1, 2012; 2011, P.A. 11-51, §§ 216, 217, eff. Jan. 1, 2012; 2012, P.A. 12-178, §§ 2, 3, 6, eff. July 1, 2012; 2013, P.A. 13-271, §§ 51 to 53, eff. July 1, 2013; 2014, P.A. 14-228, § 5, eff. July 1, 2015; 2016, P.A. 16-126, § 3.)

Notes of Decisions (540)

Footnotes

  1. C.G.S.A. § 4-166 et seq.
    C. G. S. A. § 14-227a, CT ST § 14-227a

The statutes and Constitution are current with all enactments of 2020 Regular Session and enactments of Public Acts from the 2020 July Special Session enrolled and approved by the Governor on or before July 31, 2020 and effective on or before July 31, 2020.

PROPOSED LEGISLATION

Governor’s Bill No. 16
General Assembly
February Session, 2020
LCO No. 724
Referred to Committee on JUDICIARY
Introduced by:
SEN. LOONEY, 11th Dist.
SEN. DUFF, 25th Dist.
REP. ARESIMOWICZ, 30th Dist.
REP. RITTER M., 1st Dist.
AN ACT CONCERNING THE ADU

Sec. 10. Subsections (b) to (e), inclusive, of section 14-227a of the general statutes are repealed and the following is substituted in lieu thereof (Effective April 1, 2022):

(b) (1) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, in any criminal prosecution for violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence respecting the amount of alcohol or drug in the defendant’s blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical test of the defendant’s breath, blood or urine, shall be admissible and competent provided: (A) The defendant was afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of the test and consented to the taking of the test upon which such analysis is made; (B) a true copy of the report of the test result was mailed to or personally delivered to the defendant within twenty-four hours or by the end of the next regular business day, after such result was known, whichever is later; (C) the test was performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection and was performed in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (D)the device used for such test was checked for accuracy in accordance with the regulations adopted under subsection (d) of this section; (E) an additional chemical test of the same type was performed at least ten minutes after the initial test was performed or, if requested by the police officer for reasonable cause, an additional chemical test of a different type was performed, including a test to detect the presence of a drug or drugs other than or in addition to alcohol, provided the results of the initial test shall not be inadmissible under this subsection if reasonable efforts were made to have such additional test performed in accordance with the conditions set forth in this subsection and (i) such additional test was not performed or was not performed within a reasonable time, or (ii) the results of such additional test are not admissible for failure to meet a condition set forth in this subsection; and (F) evidence is presented that the test was commenced within two hours of operation. In any prosecution under this section it shall be a rebuttable presumption that the results of such chemical analysis establish the ratio of alcohol in the blood of the defendant at the time of the alleged offense, except that if the results of the additional test indicate that the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such defendant is ten-hundredths of one per cent or less of alcohol, by weight, and is higher than the results of the first test, evidence shall be presented that demonstrates that the test results and the analysis thereof accurately indicate the blood alcohol content at the time of the alleged offense.

(2) If a law enforcement officer who is a drug recognition expert conducts a drug influence evaluation, the officer’s testimony concerning such evaluation shall be admissible and competent as evidence of operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of liquor or any drug or both under subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section.

(c) In any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, reliable evidence respecting the amount of alcohol in the defendant’s blood or urine at the time of the alleged offense, as shown by a chemical analysis of the defendant’s blood, breath or urine, otherwise admissible under subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section, shall be admissible only at the request of the defendant.

(d) The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall ascertain the reliability of each method and type of device offered for chemical testing of blood, of breath and of urine and certify those methods and types which the commissioner finds suitable for use in testing of blood, breath and urine, respectively, in this state. The Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, governing the conduct of chemical tests, the operation and use of chemical test devices, the training and certification of operators of such devices and the drawing or obtaining of blood, breath or urine samples as the commissioner finds necessary to protect the health and safety of persons who submit to chemical tests and to insure reasonable accuracy in testing results. Such regulations shall not require recertification of a police officer solely because such officer terminates such officer’s employment with the law enforcement agency for which certification was originally issued and commences employment with another such agency.

(e) (1) In any criminal prosecution for a violation of subsection (a) of this section, evidence that the defendant refused to submit to a blood, breath or urine test or the nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation requested in accordance with section 14-227b, as amended by this act, shall be admissible provided the requirements of subsection (b) of said section have been satisfied. If a case involving a violation of subsection (a) of this section is tried to a jury, the court shall instruct the jury as to any inference that may or may not be drawn from the defendant’s refusal to submit to such a test or evaluation.

(2) A drug recognition expert may testify as to his or her opinion or otherwise as to the significance of any symptoms of impairment or intoxication for which evidence has been admitted or on the condition that such evidence be introduced.

(3) In any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section in which it is alleged that the defendant’s operation of a motor vehicle was impaired, in whole or in part, by consumption of cannabis, cannabis products or THC, as those terms are defined in section 1 of this act, the court may take judicial notice that the ingestion of THC (A) can impair a person’s ability to operate a motor vehicle; (B) can impair a person’s motor function, reaction time, tracking ability, cognitive attention, decision-making, judgment, perception, peripheral vision, impulse control and memory; and (C) does not enhance a person’s ability to safely operate a motor vehicle.

THE IMPLIED CONSENT STATUTE, WHICH GOVERNS THE DMV ADMINISTRATIVE PER SE MATTERS

Effective: October 1, 2016

C.G.S.A. § 14-227b

  • 14-227b. Implied consent to test operator’s blood, breath or urine. Testing procedures. License suspension. Hearing

Currentness

(a) Any person who operates a motor vehicle in this state shall be deemed to have given such person’s consent to a chemical analysis of such person’s blood, breath or urine and, if such person is a minor, such person’s parent or parents or guardian shall also be deemed to have given their consent.

(b) If any such person, having been placed under arrest for a violation of section 14-227a or 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n, and thereafter, after being apprised of such person’s constitutional rights, having been requested to submit to a blood, breath or urine test at the option of the police officer, having been afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of such test and having been informed that such person’s license or nonresident operating privilege may be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this section if such person refuses to submit to such test, or if such person submits to such test and the results of such test indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, and that evidence of any such refusal shall be admissible in accordance with subsection (e) of section 14-227a and may be used against such person in any criminal prosecution, refuses to submit to the designated test, the test shall not be given; provided, if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test, the police officer shall designate the breath or urine test as the test to be taken. The police officer shall make a notation upon the records of the police department that such officer informed the person that such person’s license or nonresident operating privilege may be suspended if such person refused to submit to such test or if such person submitted to such test and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content.

(c) If the person arrested refuses to submit to such test or analysis or submits to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer, acting on behalf of the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall immediately revoke and take possession of the motor vehicle operator’s license or, if such person is a nonresident, suspend the nonresident operating privilege of such person, for a twenty-four-hour period. The police officer shall prepare a report of the incident and shall mail or otherwise transmit in accordance with this subsection the report and a copy of the results of any chemical test or analysis to the Department of Motor Vehicles within three business days. The report shall contain such information as prescribed by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement as provided in section 53a-157b by the arresting officer. If the person arrested refused to submit to such test or analysis, the report shall be endorsed by a third person who witnessed such refusal. The report shall set forth the grounds for the officer’s belief that there was probable cause to arrest such person for a violation of section 14-227a or 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n and shall state that such person had refused to submit to such test or analysis when requested by such police officer to do so or that such person submitted to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may accept a police report under this subsection that is prepared and transmitted as an electronic record, including electronic signature or signatures, subject to such security procedures as the commissioner may specify and in accordance with the provisions of sections 1-266 to 1-286, inclusive. In any hearing conducted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section, it shall not be a ground for objection to the admissibility of a police report that it is an electronic record prepared by electronic means.

(d) If the person arrested submits to a blood or urine test at the request of the police officer, and the specimen requires laboratory analysis in order to obtain the test results, the police officer shall not take possession of the motor vehicle operator’s license of such person or, except as provided in this subsection, follow the procedures subsequent to taking possession of the operator’s license as set forth in subsection (c) of this section. If the test results indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer, immediately upon receipt of the test results, shall notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and submit to the commissioner the written report required pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

(e) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, upon receipt of such report, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may suspend any operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege of such person effective as of a date certain, which date shall be not later than thirty days after the date such person received notice of such person’s arrest by the police officer. Any person whose operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner to be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 541 and prior to the effective date of the suspension. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person’s operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended as of a date certain and that such person is entitled to a hearing prior to the effective date of the suspension and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice.

(2) If the person arrested (A) is involved in an accident resulting in a fatality, or (B) has previously had such person’s operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege suspended under the provisions of section 14-227a, 14-227m or 14-227n during the ten-year period preceding the present arrest, upon receipt of such report, the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may suspend any operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege of such person effective as of the date specified in a notice of such suspension to such person. Any person whose operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner, to be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person’s operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended as of the date specified in such suspension notice, and that such person is entitled to a hearing and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice. Any suspension issued under this subdivision shall remain in effect until such suspension is affirmed or such operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege is reinstated in accordance with subsections (f) and (h) of this section.

(f) If such person does not contact the department to schedule a hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) of this section.

(g) If such person contacts the department to schedule a hearing, the department shall assign a date, time and place for the hearing, which date shall be prior to the effective date of the suspension, except that, with respect to a person whose operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege is suspended in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (e) of this section, such hearing shall be scheduled not later than thirty days after such person contacts the department. At the request of such person, the hearing officer or the department and upon a showing of good cause, the commissioner may grant one or more continuances. The hearing shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Did the police officer have probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; (2) was such person placed under arrest; (3) did such person refuse to submit to such test or analysis or did such person submit to such test or analysis, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content; and (4) was such person operating the motor vehicle. In the hearing, the results of the test or analysis shall be sufficient to indicate the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person at the time of operation, provided such test was commenced within two hours of the time of operation. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 52-143, any subpoena summoning a police officer as a witness shall be served not less than seventy-two hours prior to the designated time of the hearing.

(h) If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall reinstate such license or operating privilege. If, after such hearing, the commissioner does not find on any one of the said issues in the negative or if such person fails to appear at such hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) of this section. The commissioner shall render a decision at the conclusion of such hearing and send a notice of the decision by bulk certified mail to such person. The notice of such decision sent by bulk certified mail to the address of such person as shown by the records of the commissioner shall be sufficient notice to such person that such person’s operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege is reinstated or suspended, as the case may be.

(i) (1) The commissioner shall suspend the operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege of a person who did not contact the department to schedule a hearing, who failed to appear at a hearing, or against whom a decision was issued, after a hearing, pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as of the effective date contained in the suspension notice, for a period of forty-five days. As a condition for the restoration of such operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege, such person shall be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, for the longer of either (A) the period prescribed in subdivision (2) of this subsection for the present arrest and suspension, or (B) the period prescribed in subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of subsection (g) of section 14-227a or subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of subsection (c) of section 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (c) of section 14-227n for the present arrest and conviction, if any.

(2) (A) A person twenty-one years of age or older at the time of the arrest who submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content shall install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the following periods: (i) For a first suspension under this section, six months; (ii) for a second suspension under this section, one year; and (iii) for a third or subsequent suspension under this section, two years; (B) a person under twenty-one years of age at the time of the arrest who submitted to a test or analysis and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content shall install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the following periods: (i) For a first suspension under this section, one year; (ii) for a second suspension under this section, two years; and (iii) for a third or subsequent suspension under this section, three years; and (C) a person, regardless of age, who refused to submit to a test or analysis shall install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the following periods: (i) For a first suspension under this section, one year; (ii) for a second suspension under this section, two years; and (iii) for a third or subsequent suspension, under this section, three years.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection, a person whose motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege has been permanently revoked upon a third offense pursuant to subsection (g) of section 14-227a or subsection (c) of section 14-227m shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in subdivision (2) of subsection (i) of section 14-111.

(j) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, any police officer who obtains the results of a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from or a urine sample provided by an operator of a motor vehicle who was involved in an accident and suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident, or who was otherwise deemed by a police officer to require treatment or observation at a hospital, shall notify the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and submit to the commissioner a written report if such results indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, and if such person was arrested for violation of section 14-227a or 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n. The report shall be made on a form approved by the commissioner containing such information as the commissioner prescribes, and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement, as provided in section 53a-157b, by the police officer. The commissioner may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing, which shall be conducted by a hearing officer on behalf of the commissioner in accordance with chapter 54, suspend the motor vehicle operator’s license or nonresident operating privilege of such person for the appropriate period of time specified in subsection (i) of this section and require such person to install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the appropriate period of time prescribed in subsection (i) of this section. Each hearing conducted under this subsection shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Whether the police officer had probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both; (2) whether such person was placed under arrest; (3) whether such person was operating the motor vehicle; (4) whether the results of the analysis of the blood or urine of such person indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content; and (5) in the event that a blood sample was taken, whether the blood sample was obtained in accordance with conditions for admissibility and competence as evidence as set forth in subsection (k) of section 14-227a. If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall not impose a suspension. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases, as provided in section 52-260.

(k) The provisions of this section shall apply with the same effect to the refusal by any person to submit to an additional chemical test as provided in subdivision (5) of subsection (b) of section 14-227a.

(l) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any person whose physical condition is such that, according to competent medical advice, such test would be inadvisable.

(m) The state shall pay the reasonable charges of any physician who, at the request of a municipal police department, takes a blood sample for purposes of a test under the provisions of this section.

(n) For the purposes of this section, “elevated blood alcohol content” means (1) a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, (2) if such person is operating a commercial motor vehicle, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is four-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (3) if such person is less than twenty-one years of age, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is two-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight.

(o) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

Credits

(1963, P.A. 616, § 2, eff. Jan. 1, 1964; 1965, Feb.Sp.Sess., P.A. 190; 1967, P.A. 656, § 9, eff. June 27, 1967; 1967, P.A. 721, eff. Oct. 1, 1967; 1975, P.A. 75-205; 1980, P.A. 80-438, § 4; 1981, P.A. 81-446, § 3; 1982, P.A. 82-403, § 4; 1982, P.A. 82-408, § 4; 1983, P.A. 83-534, § 2; 1985, P.A. 85-596, § 2; 1989, P.A. 89-314, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1990; 1990, P.A. 90-263, § 73, eff. July 1, 1990; 1993, P.A. 93-371, § 1, eff. July 1, 1993; 1994, P.A. 94-189, § 14, eff. Oct. 1, 1994; 1995, P.A. 95-279, § 1, eff. July 6, 1995; 1998, P.A. 98-182, § 20, eff. Jan. 1, 1999; 1999, P.A. 99-255, § 2; 2002, P.A. 02-70, § 72, eff. July 1, 2002; 2002, May 9 Sp.Sess., P.A. 02-1, § 109, eff. July 1, 2002; 2003, P.A. 03-278, §§ 48, 49, eff. July 9, 2003; 2004, P.A. 04-250, § 1; 2005, P.A. 05-215, § 6, eff. Jan. 1, 2006; 2008, Jan.Sp.Sess., P.A. 08-1, § 34, eff. Jan. 25, 2008; 2008, P.A. 08-32, § 1, eff. Aug. 1, 2008; 2009, P.A. 09-187, § 63; 2010, P.A. 10-110, § 27, eff. June 5, 2010; 2012, P.A. 12-81, § 19, eff. July 1, 2012; 2014, P.A. 14-228, § 6, eff. July 1, 2015; 2016, P.A. 16-55, §§ 6, 7, eff. July 1, 2016; 2016, P.A. 16-126, § 17.)

Notes of Decisions (239)

Footnotes

  1. C.G.S.A. § 4-166 et seq.
    C. G. S. A. § 14-227b, CT ST § 14-227b

The statutes and Constitution are current with all enactments of 2020 Regular Session and enactments of Public Acts from the 2020 July Special Session enrolled and approved by the Governor on or before July 31, 2020 and effective on or before July 31, 2020.

PROPOSED LEGISLATIVE CHANGES TO 14-227b

Sec. 11. Section 14-227b of the general statutes is repealed and the following is substituted in lieu thereof (Effective April 1, 2022):

(a) Any person who operates a motor vehicle in this state shall be deemed to have given such person’s consent to: (1) A chemical test of such person’s blood, breath or urine; and (2) a nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation conducted by a drug recognition expert. If such person is a minor, such person’s parent or parents or guardian shall also be deemed to have given their consent for such test or evaluation.

(b) (1) A police officer who has placed a person under arrest for a violation of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n may request that such person submit to a blood, breath or urine test at the option of the police officer, a drug influence evaluation conducted by a drug recognition expert or both after such person has been (A) apprised of such person’s constitutional rights; (B) afforded a reasonable opportunity to telephone an attorney prior to the performance of such test or evaluation; (C) informed that evidence of any refusal to submit to such test or evaluation shall be admissible in accordance with subsection (e) of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, and may be used against such person in any criminal prosecution, except that refusal to submit to the testimonial portions of a drug influence evaluation shall not be considered evidence of refusal of such evaluation for purposes of any criminal prosecution; and (D) informed that such person’s license or operating privilege may be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this section if (i) such person refuses to submit to such test or the nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation, (ii) such person submits to such test and the results of such test indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, or (iii) the officer believes there is substantial evidence to conclude that such person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both.

(2) If the person refuses to submit to any test or drug influence evaluation, the test or evaluation shall not be given, except if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test, the police officer shall designate another test to be taken. If a person submits to a breath test and the results indicate that the person does not have an elevated blood alcohol content, the police officer may request that the person submit to a different type of test, except that if the person refuses or is unable to submit to a blood test, the officer shall designate a urine test to be taken. The police officer shall make a notation upon the records of the police department that such officer informed the person that such person’s license or operating privilege may be suspended if (A) such person refused to submit to such test or nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation; (B) such person submitted to such test and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content; or (C) the officer believes there is substantial evidence to conclude that such person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both.

(c) If the person arrested refuses to submit to such test or nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation or submits to such test, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test indicate that such person has an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, the police officer, acting on behalf of the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, shall immediately revoke and take possession of the motor vehicle operator’s license or, if such person is not licensed or is a nonresident, suspend the operating privilege of such person, for a twenty-four-hour period. The police officer shall prepare a report of the incident and shall mail or otherwise transmit in accordance with this subsection the report and a copy of the results of any chemical test to the Department of Motor Vehicles within three business days, except that failure of an officer to mail or transmit such report within three business days shall not impact a decision to suspend such person’s license or operating privilege and shall not render such report inadmissible at a proceeding under this section. The report shall contain such information as prescribed by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement as provided in section 53a-157b by the arresting officer. If the person arrested refused to submit to such test or evaluation, the report shall be endorsed by a third person who witnessed such refusal. The report shall set forth the grounds for the officer’s belief that there was probable cause to arrest such person for a violation of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, or 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n and shall state that such person had refused to submit to such test or evaluation when requested by such police officer to do so or that such person submitted to such test or, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test or analysis indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may accept a police report under this subsection that is prepared and transmitted as an electronic record, including electronic signature or signatures, subject to such security procedures as the commissioner may specify and in accordance with the provisions of sections 1-266 to 1-286, inclusive. In any hearing conducted pursuant to the provisions of subsection (g) of this section, it shall not be a ground for objection to the admissibility of a police report that it is an electronic record prepared by electronic means.

(d) If a police officer who has placed a person under arrest for a violation of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n does not request that such person submit to a blood, breath or urine test under subsection (b) of this section, or obtains results from a test administered under subsection (b) of this section that indicate that the person does not have an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, such officer shall:

(1) Advise such person that such person’s license or operating privilege may be suspended in accordance with the provisions of this section if such police officer believes there is substantial evidence to conclude that such person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; and

(2) Submit a report to the commissioner in accordance with the procedure set forth in subsection (c) of this section and, if such report contains the results of a blood, breath or urine test that does not show an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, such report shall conform to the requirements in subsection (c) of this section for reports that contain results showing an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content. In any report submitted under this subdivision, the officer shall document (A) the basis for the officer’s belief that there was probable cause to arrest such person for a violation of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, or 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n, and (B) whether the officer believes that there is substantial evidence to conclude that the person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both. With such report, the officer may submit other supporting documentation indicating the person’s intoxication by liquor or any drug or both. If the officer believes there is substantial evidence to conclude that the person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both, the officer shall immediately revoke and take possession of the motor vehicle operator’s license or, if such person is not licensed or is a nonresident, suspend the operating privilege of such person, for a twenty-four-hour period.

(e) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, upon receipt of a report submitted under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, the commissioner may suspend any operator’s license or operating privilege of such person effective as of a date certain, which date certain shall be not later than thirty days from the later of the date such person received (A) notice of such person’s arrest by the police officer, or (B) the results of a blood or urine test or a drug influence evaluation. Any person whose operator’s license or operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner to be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 and prior to the effective date of the suspension. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person’s operator’s license or operating privilege is suspended as of a date certain and that such person is entitled to a hearing prior to the effective date of the suspension and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice.

(2) Upon receipt of a report that (A) the person’s arrest involved an accident resulting in a fatality, or (B) the person has previously had such person’s operator’s license or operating privilege suspended under the provisions of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, 14-227m or 14-227n, as amended by this act, during the ten-year period preceding the present arrest, the commissioner may suspend any operator’s license or operating privilege of such person effective as of the date specified in a notice of such suspension to such person. A person whose operator’s license or operating privilege has been suspended in accordance with this subdivision shall automatically be entitled to a hearing before the commissioner, to be held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. The commissioner shall send a suspension notice to such person informing such person that such person’s operator’s license or operating privilege is suspended as of the date specified in such suspension notice, and that such person is entitled to a hearing and may schedule such hearing by contacting the Department of Motor Vehicles not later than seven days after the date of mailing of such suspension notice. Any suspension issued under this subdivision shall remain in effect until such suspension is affirmed under subsection (f) of this section or such operator’s license or operating privilege is reinstated in accordance with subsection (h) of this section.

(f) If such person does not contact the department to schedule a hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) of this section.

(g) (1) If such person contacts the department to schedule a hearing, the department shall assign a date, time and place for the hearing, which date shall be prior to the effective date of the suspension, except that, with respect to a person whose operator’s license or operating privilege is suspended in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (e) of this section, such hearing shall be scheduled not later than thirty days after such person contacts the department. At the request of such person, the hearing officer or the department and upon a showing of good cause, the commissioner may grant one or more continuances.

(2) A hearing based on a report submitted under subsection (c) of this section shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (A) Did the police officer have probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; (B) was such person placed under arrest; (C) did such person (i) refuse to submit to such test or nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation, or (ii) submit to such test, commenced within two hours of the time of operation, and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content; and (D) was such person operating the motor vehicle.

(3) A hearing based on a report submitted under subsection (d) of this section shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (A) Did the police officer have probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; (B) was the person placed under arrest; (C) is there substantial evidence to conclude that the person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; and (D) was the person operating the motor vehicle.

(4) In a hearing under this subsection, the results of the test, if administered, shall be sufficient to indicate the ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person at the time of operation, provided such test was commenced within two hours of the time of operation. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at a hearing under this subsection shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 52-143, any subpoena summoning a police officer as a witness shall be served not less than seventy-two hours prior to the designated time of the hearing.

(5) In a hearing based on a report submitted under subsection (d) of this section, evidence of operation under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both shall be admissible. Such evidence may include, but need not be limited to, (A) the police officer’s observations of intoxication, as documented in a report submitted to the commissioner under subsection (d) of this section; (B) the results of any chemical test administered under this section or a toxicology report certified by the Division of Scientific Services; (C) hospital or medical records obtained in accordance with subsection (j) of this section or by the consent of the operator; (D) the results of any tests conducted by, or the report of, an officer trained in advanced roadside impaired driving enforcement; or (E) reports of drug recognition experts.

(h) If, after a hearing under subdivision (2) of subsection (g) of this section, the commissioner finds in the negative on any one of the issues in subparagraph (A), (B), (C) or (D) of said subdivision, the commissioner shall reinstate such license or operating privilege. If, after a hearing under subdivision (3) of subsection (g) of this section, the commissioner finds in the negative on any one of the issues in subparagraph (A), (B), (C) or (D) of said subdivision, the commissioner shall reinstate such license or operating privilege. If, after such hearing under subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection (g) of this section, the commissioner does not find on any one of said issues in the negative or if such person fails to appear at such hearing, the commissioner shall affirm the suspension contained in the suspension notice for the appropriate period specified in subsection (i) of this section. The commissioner shall render a decision at the conclusion of such hearing and send a notice of the decision by bulk certified mail to such person. The notice of such decision sent by bulk certified mail to the address of such person as shown by the records of the commissioner shall be sufficient notice to such person that such person’s operator’s license or operating privilege is reinstated or suspended, as the case may be.

(i) (1) The commissioner shall suspend the operator’s license or operating privilege of a person who did not contact the department to schedule a hearing, who failed to appear at a hearing, or against whom a decision was issued, after a hearing, pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as of the effective date contained in the suspension notice, for a period of forty-five days. As a condition for the restoration of such operator’s license or operating privilege, such person shall be required to install an ignition interlock device on each motor vehicle owned or operated by such person and, upon such restoration, be prohibited from operating a motor vehicle unless such motor vehicle is equipped with a functioning, approved ignition interlock device, as defined in section 14-227j, for the longer of either (A) the period prescribed in subdivision (2) of this subsection for the present arrest and suspension, or (B) the period prescribed in subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of subsection (g) of section 14-227a or subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of subsection (c) of section 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (c) of section 14-227n for the present arrest and conviction, if any.

(2) (A) A person twenty-one years of age or older at the time of the arrest who submitted to a test and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content, or was found to have been operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both based on a report filed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section,shall install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the following periods: (i) For a first suspension under this section, six months; (ii) for a second suspension under this section, one year; and (iii) for a third or subsequent suspension under this section, two years; (B) a person under twenty-one years of age at the time of the arrest who submitted to a test and the results of such test indicated that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, or was found to have been operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both based on a report filed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, shall install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the following periods: (i) For a first suspension under this section, one year; (ii) for a second suspension under this section, two years; and (iii) for a third or subsequent suspension under this section, three years; and (C) a person, regardless of age, who refused to submit to a test or nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation shall install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the following periods: (i) For a first suspension under this section, one year; (ii) for a second suspension under this section, two years; and (iii) for a third or subsequent suspension, under this section, three years.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection, a person whose motor vehicle operator’s license or operating privilege has been permanently revoked upon a third offense pursuant to subsection (g) of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, or subsection (c) of section 14-227m shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in subdivision (2) of subsection (i) of section 14-111.

(j) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, any police officer who obtains the results of a chemical analysis of a blood sample taken from or a urine sample provided by an operator of a motor vehicle who was involved in an accident and suffered or allegedly suffered physical injury in such accident, or who was otherwise deemed by a police officer to require treatment or observation at a hospital, shall notify the commissioner and submit to the commissioner a written report if such results indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, or any quantity of an intoxicating liquor or any drug or both in such person’s blood, and if such person was arrested for violation of section 14-227a, as amended by this act, or 14-227m or subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection (a) of section 14-227n. The report shall be made on a form approved by the commissioner containing such information as the commissioner prescribes, and shall be subscribed and sworn to under penalty of false statement, as provided in section 53a-157b, by the police officer. The commissioner may, after notice and an opportunity for hearing, which shall be conducted by a hearing officer on behalf of the commissioner in accordance with chapter 54, suspend the motor vehicle operator’s license or operating privilege of such person for the appropriate period of time specified in subsection (i) of this section and require such person to install and maintain an ignition interlock device for the appropriate period of time prescribed in subsection (i) of this section. Each hearing conducted under this subsection shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Whether the police officer had probable cause to arrest the person for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or drug or both; (2) whether such person was placed under arrest; (3) whether such person was operating the motor vehicle; (4) whether the results of the analysis of the blood or urine of such person indicate that such person had an elevated blood alcohol content or elevated blood THC content, or there is substantial evidence to conclude that the person was operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both; and (5) in the event that a blood sample was taken, whether the blood sample was obtained in accordance with conditions for admissibility and competence as evidence as set forth in subsection (k) of section 14-227a. If, after such hearing, the commissioner finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the commissioner shall not impose a suspension. The fees of any witness summoned to appear at the hearing shall be the same as provided by the general statutes for witnesses in criminal cases, as provided in section 52-260.

(k) The provisions of this section shall apply with the same effect to the refusal by any person to submit to an additional chemical test as provided in subparagraph (E) of subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of section 14-227a, as amended by this act.

(l) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any person whose physical condition is such that, according to competent medical advice, such test would be inadvisable.

(m) The state shall pay the reasonable charges of any physician who, at the request of a municipal police department, takes a blood sample for purposes of a test under the provisions of this section.

(n) For the purposes of this section, “elevated blood alcohol content” means (1) (A) a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is eight-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (B) a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is between five-hundredths and eight-hundredths of one per cent of alcohol, by weight, if such person also tests positive for any quantity of a drug, (2) if such person is operating a commercial motor vehicle, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is four-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight, or (3) if such person is less than twenty-one years of age, a ratio of alcohol in the blood of such person that is two-hundredths of one per cent or more of alcohol, by weight; and “elevated blood THC content” means, if such person is less than twenty-one years of age, one-half nanogram or more of THC, as defined in section 1 of this act, in the blood of such person, unless such person provides evidence that such person is a qualifying patient with a valid registration certificate from the Department of Consumer Protection pursuant to chapter 420f.

(o) The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

(p) For purposes of this section and section 14-227a, as amended by this act, (1) “advanced roadside impaired driving enforcement” means a program developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration with the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Technical Advisory Panel, which focuses on impaired driving; (2) “drug influence evaluation” means a twelve-part evaluation developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the International Association of Chiefs of Police that is conducted by a drug recognition expert to determine the level of a person’s impairment from the use of drugs and the type of drug or drugs causing such impairment; (3) “drug recognition expert” means a person certified by the International Association of Chiefs of Police as having met all requirements of the International Drug Evaluation and Classification Program; and (4) “nontestimonial portion of a drug influence evaluation” means a drug influence evaluation conducted by a drug recognition expert that does not include a verbal interview with the subject.

Sec. 12. Section 14-227c of the general statutes is repealed and the following is substituted in lieu thereof (Effective April 1, 2022):

(a) As part of the investigation of any motor vehicle accident resulting in the death of a person, the Chief Medical Examiner, Deputy Chief Medical Examiner, an associate medical examiner, a pathologist as specified in section 19a-405, or an authorized assistant medical examiner, as the case may be, shall order that a blood sample be taken from the body of any operator or pedestrian who dies as a result of such accident. Such blood samples shall be examined for the presence and concentration of alcohol and any drug by the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection or by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. Nothing in this subsection or section 19a-406 shall be construed as requiring such medical examiner to perform an autopsy in connection with obtaining such blood samples.

(b) A blood, breath or urine sample shall be obtained from any surviving operator whose motor vehicle is involved in an accident resulting in the serious physical injury, as defined in section 53a-3, or death of another person, if (1) a police officer has probable cause to believe that such operator operated such motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or both, or (2) such operator has been charged with a motor vehicle violation in connection with such accident and a police officer has a reasonable and articulable suspicion that such operator operated such motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug, or both. The test shall be performed by or at the direction of a police officer according to methods and with equipment approved by the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection and shall be performed by a person certified or recertified for such purpose by said department or recertified by persons certified as instructors by the Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection. The equipment used for such test shall be checked for accuracy by a person certified by the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection immediately before and after such test is performed. If a blood test is performed, it shall be on a blood sample taken by a person licensed to practice medicine and surgery in this state, a qualified laboratory technician, a registered nurse, a physician assistant or a phlebotomist. A blood sample obtained from an operator pursuant to this subsection shall be examined for the presence and concentration of alcohol and any drug by the Division of Scientific Services within the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection.

(c) Each police officer who obtains from a surviving operator any blood, breath or urine sample pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall submit to the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles a written report providing the results of such sample on a form approved by the commissioner. The commissioner may, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing held in accordance with chapter 54 and section 14-227b, as amended by this act, suspend the motor vehicle operator’s license or operating privilege of such person and require such person to install and maintain an ignition interlock device as provided for in subsection (i) of section 14-227b, as amended by this act. Such hearing shall be limited to a determination of the following issues: (1) Was the person operating the motor vehicle; (2) was the person’s sample obtained in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section; and (3) was the examined sample found to have an elevated blood alcohol content, as defined in section 14-227b, as amended by this act, or elevated blood THC content, as defined in section 14-227b, as amended by this act, or was there substantial evidence that the person was operating the motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug or both.

Drivers Can Qualify for an Early License Reinstatement If They Install an Ignition Interlock Device on Their Vehicle

Steve Tomeo: The per se percentage of alcohol in a person’s blood has decreased. In other words, we’re now at .08. In addition, Connecticut, over the past couple years with the backing of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, has made an effort to keep people on the road so that they can work by giving them a short 45 day license suspension. I previously listed the suspensions with IID installations.

This Allows Drivers to Continue to Work after a DUI Conviction

Interviewer: Why has it been decreased over the years?

Steve Tomeo: There is an effort by the Federal Government to have states decrease the blood alcohol concentration to .05. That is an issue that is raised every year. So far, it has been resisted in Connecticut. My belief is that there are people in the legislature who are responding to their constituents. They are trying to achieve zero tolerance for alcohol in your system. I think that’s one of the primary reasons and I think there are a number of people and some scientists who believe that no matter the amount of alcohol in your system, it does have an effect on your ability to drive. Drunk driving does get a lot of national attention and I think legislatures react to that. Of course, law enforcement plays a part in that and I think law enforcement believes that the levels ought to be lowered. In Connecticut, it does not matter if you have a breath, urine, or blood test indicating the blood alcohol concentration. This is because the law in Connecticut allows for the prosecution to prove at trial that a person was operating under the influence. When they prove or try to prove a person is operating under the influence, they bring up smell of alcohol on a person’s breath or the smell of an alcoholic beverage on a person’s breath. They bring up a person’s eyes are glassy or bloodshot and then they have you do the field sobriety test. These are common law methods of trying to establish that a person who either admits or smells like he had something to drink was operating under the influence.

A 200-Pound Male Can Reach the Legal Limit of .08 after Consuming Two Beers over an Hour

Interviewer: For educational purposes, could you put a number of beers needed to reach the .08 for an average 200-pound male?

Steve Tomeo: I’m not a scientist, but my experience is that if I see a client that has had, say, two beers in the course of in an hour, my experience is on the breath machine he is going to be at .08. Of course, that does vary from person to person.

Variables That Influence When an Individual Is Impaired Include the Status of Their Health and How Much They Had to Eat

There is the variable of weight, but there are other variables also. Did he have anything to eat? How much did he have to eat? If he has a beer or two beers, what is the alcohol content of those beers? Then, there are other matters that come into play in, such as the status of his health. I think it’s very difficult to come up with a number other than to say when people, scientists and experts, give their opinion, or their answer to questions. They really speak in terms of averages. They take a group of people, they give them so many beers and so many glasses of wine to see what their blood alcohol concentrations will be, either minute by minute or every 15 minutes. Then, they have these computer programs that can try and come up with the answer, taking into consideration all of these variables. I think it’s kind of difficult to come up with an exact answer. coming down.

STEVEN TOMEO, ESQ.

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